As this fourth edition of The Global Innovation Index (GII) 2011 goes to the press in the second quarter of 2011, the global economic recovery is strengthening in most parts of the world. With the global economy forecasted to grow at a rate of more than 4% in 2011, innovation is coming into its own as an essential element of resilience as economies aim to sustain their growth while creating new jobs for their citizens. Since 2007, INSEAD eLab has been producing the GII, recognizing the key role of innovation as a driver of economic growth and prosperity and acknowledging the need for a broad horizontal vision of innovation that is applicable to both developed and emerging economies. A key goal of the GII has been to find metrics and approaches to better capture the richness of innovation in society and go beyond the traditional measures of innovation such as the number of PhDs, research articles produced, research centers created, patents issued, and R&D expenditures.