This chapter provides a short review of relevant recent literature in order to better understand the contribution of energy (in particular, electricity) to economic growth and development. It looks at both macro and micro-level research analysing the links between energy and development. The chapter will discuss only in-depth qualitative and quantitative research. The fairly large number of policy papers citing purely anecdotal evidence on ‘productive use of electricity’ is not taken into account here. The review focuses on the role of electricity access; questions of service quality or reliability of energy supply will only be considered as far as they influence the uptake and impact of (newly provided) energy access. In line with the general focus of the PRODUSE Study, the chapter takes a one-dimensional perspective on development with economic parameters like income generation, growth and productivity, inter alia, as the best measurable development indicators. Impacts on education or health for example obviously form important aspects of development – but their measurement requires more complex methodologies and therefore they are not discussed here. The remainder of this chapter is structured as follows: the next section provides a basic conceptual background by outlining the steps that lead from energy supply to poverty reduction. Section 3 discusses some methodological issues. This is followed by an overview of the existing empirical evidence at the macro-level (Section 4) and at micro-level (Section 5). Section 6 contains concluding remarks.