The draft of this report was presented at the Arab Regional Conference on Higher Education (ARCHE+10), then revised, translated and edited after the conference. The report reviews the achievements of the higher education sector in the Arab States a decade after the Regional Arab Conference and the World Conference on Higher Education in 1998. It is also about current and future challenges facing the sector. It is based on 17 national reports commissioned by UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States in Beirut and drafted by National Coordinators designated by the ministries in charge of higher education. According to the TOR set out by UNESCO each report included: 1) a narrative report; 2) national data about higher education; and 3) questionnaires addressed to universities, collected, and sent to UNESCO office in Beirut. Whenever needed, additional insight was brought in from the papers included in this book.