This article seeks to present the main characteristics of Research and Development (R&D) in developing countries using mainly available R&D statistics and to draw some implications for the Frascati Manual methodologies and its application. The main characteristics presented include trends and concentrations, relative share of Highly Qualified Skills (HQS) abroad, R&D expenditures, impact factor and the relative importance of international collaboration. R&D statistics in developing countries are still scarce, particularly in Africa. Furthermore, they may not fully explain the characteristics of R&D in developing countries, for example, the dynamics of R&D systems, R&D practices, informal behaviours and contributions, just to mention a few. It is, therefore, argued that beyond indicators, there is a need for complementary surveys to derive, inter alia, descriptors and narratives. In the concluding part, the particular characteristics of R&D in developing countries and the resulting consequences for R&D measurement are discussed, focusing on implications and recommendations, in view of a possible addition and/or future revision of the Frascati Manual.