This research concerns particularly pre-service and in-service training. Throughout this report this will be referred to as teacher and instructor training (TIT). It seeks to map out the character and extent of provision across ten Arab countries in a comparative manner, making it possible to understand where there are similarities and where there are differences in approach and in outcomes. However, this investigation of teacher and instructor training is situated within the larger question of what makes for quality and effectiveness in the TVET workforce. This research therefore aims to place teacher and instructor training within the political and institutional context of each of the ten countries in order to understand how TIT combines with other factors (e.g. recruitment, career structure, wages, management, governance) to shape the quality of teaching and training. In addition, the report focuses particularly on change and development: we want to understand not only the status quo but how policies and the current set-up are shaping the future and what opportunities exist for improvement and progress.